Saturday, May 11, 2019

Principle of fish farming

Fish is important because it contain proteins (body building food), vitamins, minerals, salt, fats and carbohydrates. Fish is a first class protein as is globally classified for its sterling quality in terms of amino acid.

It contains two essential amino acids that are needed by the body for growth and repairs of –worn-out tissues. It is known that fish accounts for 40% of animal protein in Nigeria diets (anachie, 1974).

Fish farming is the growing of fish in ponds. It can be used to improve land especially not good for growing crop or arable farming e.g. marshy land and water logged areas. In places where paddy rice are grown fish farming can be incorporated to get the best out of the land. Similarly, fish ponds can be build as part of the water supply and irrigation system. When fish farming is integrated to crop cultivation the farmer gets a good yield that is higher than a farm with no fish ponds.

The knowledge of fish farm can be used to produce fingerlings (young fish) which can be used to stock our rivers, ponds, reservoirs, rivers and streams to sustain the capture fisheries which has been catching less due to over fishing and ecological changes.

        Fish farming can reduce the huge amount of foreign exchange being spent by African countries on fish importation. Fish growth in ponds can be controlled; the farmers themselves select the fish species they wish to raise. Fish farming can be integrated with other livestocks to create individual income and improve is water management.


There are different types of fish ponds:

1. Earthen fish ponds (farms)
2. Concrete fish ponds
3. Plastic / polymer ponds
4. Fiber glass ponds
5. Wooden ponds

Earthen fish ponds – are dug out ponds from the land (soil) and are of various types. They are constructed (made) in different types and components.

Other factors involved in the selection of the site include visual survey, soil types, topography of the area, source of water supply etc.
A fish pond can either be intensive or extensive. An intensive fish culture is when the farmer takes control of the system management by given the farm full attention of intensive feeding and management control to achieve best result and yield from the farm where as an extensive fish farm is where the farmer given little or no attention to the farm leaving the fishes to feed on their own and the farmer expects little or no return from the farm.

A. Contour ponds-Are earthen ponds constructed on slopping ground. The bottom walls of the ponds lies along the contour of the ground. Contour ponds are constructed along the sides of valley. Water supply into the ponds comes in a furrow from a stream or sometimes a conservation dam.
B. Barrage ponds- Are earthen ponds constructed by building a wall across a small dam or stream and the ponds therefore looks like a small conservation. They are usually built on a mushy land where water inlet (supply) to the ponds is from a spring or underground water. It is important that this type of pond is not built near a stream during heavy rainfall.
 The disadvantage of barrage ponds over the earthen ponds is that they are prune to disease outbreak because the ponds are linked to each other.

C. Paddy ponds – Are constructed on fadama and wet lands and floody lands not useful for arable farming (swampy and flood plains) they are also constructed on paddy rice farm where they are stocked with Tilapia that controls the weeds of the rice field.

D. CONCRETE PONDS- They are constructed with blocks and concrete according to various types, they could be rectangular, circular and are of various sizes. They are fitted with water pipes to serve as inlet and outlet water supplies. They could be stagnant or flow trough or re circulatory.

E. PLASTIC / POLYMER – Are of the same principle with concrete ponds they are of different sizes and shapes and can either serve for stagnant, flow trough or re circulatory.

F. FIBER GLASS –Are more expensive but have similar use with those of concrete and plastic/polymer.

G. WOODEN TYPES – They are made of woods and in different sizes and shapes – the inner walls are lined with rubber to prevent water leakages and are of similar use with other types of ponds.

H. STAGNANT /STANDING PONDS – Are ponds stored with water and used to raise fish to table size without changing of the water until when the fish are harvested.

I. FLOW TROUGH SYSTEM – Are ponds filled with water to raise fish with continuous in flow and outflow of water throughout the period of raising the fish . This result in a lot of water usage and waste.

J. RECIRCULATORY – This is a method where water is been used and are re circled without waste of water but very expensive as it needs constant supply energy to supply electricity to run the system.

K. HOME STEAD POND – This is a pond constructed to raise fish only for home consumption. It could be earthen, concrete or polymer.

L. MONOCULTURE – This is a practice where only one type of fish are raised in a pond.

M. POLYCULTURE - Where many species of fish are raised in a pond.

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